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In addition to these four classes, modern pharmaceutical chemistry added two categories of man-made substances, i.e. Of these natural sources, botanical sources are of specific importance in the context of this review.The botanical sources are known to provide the following classes of NCEs for drug discovery processes.There are various examples of development of new drugs from the plant sources.

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Pharmaceutical research expanded after the second world war to include massive screening of microorganisms for new antibiotics, inspired by the discovery of penicillin. lovastatin and analogs), immunosuppressants for organ transplants (e.g. Most of these molecules in the developmental pipeline are derived from leads from plants and microbial sources.

Few drugs developed from natural sources have undoubtedly revolutionized medicine, like antibiotics (e.g. cyclosporine, rapamycins), and anticancer drugs (e.g. Cancer and infections are the two predominant therapeutic areas for which the drug discovery program is based on natural products, but many other therapeutic areas also get covered, such as neuro-pharmacological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, inflammation, metabolic, etc.

This rule is an algorithm consisting of four rules in which many of the cutoff numbers are five or multiples of five, thus originating the rule's name.

To be drug-like, a candidate should have: The aim of the "rule of five" is to highlight possible bioavailability problems if two or more properties are violated.

The sources of many of the new drugs and active ingredients of medicines are derived from natural products.